# plotly.io package¶

plotly.io.from_json(value, output_type='Figure', skip_invalid=False, engine=None)

Construct a figure from a JSON string

Parameters
• value (str or bytes) – String or bytes object containing the JSON representation of a figure

• output_type (type or str (default 'Figure')) – The output figure type or type name. One of: graph_objects.Figure, ‘Figure’, graph_objects.FigureWidget, ‘FigureWidget’

• skip_invalid (bool (default False)) – False if invalid figure properties should result in an exception. True if invalid figure properties should be silently ignored.

• engine (str (default None)) –

The JSON decoding engine to use. One of:
• if “json”, parse JSON using built in json module

• if “orjson”, parse using the faster orjson module, requires the orjson package

• if “auto” use orjson module if available, otherwise use the json module

If not specified, the default engine is set to the current value of plotly.io.json.config.default_engine.

Raises

ValueError – if value is not a string, or if skip_invalid=False and value contains invalid figure properties

Returns

Return type
plotly.io.full_figure_for_development(fig, warn=True, as_dict=False)

Compute default values for all attributes not specified in the input figure and returns the output as a “full” figure. This function calls Plotly.js via Kaleido to populate unspecified attributes. This function is intended for interactive use during development to learn more about how Plotly.js computes default values and is not generally necessary or recommended for production use.

Parameters
• fig – Figure object or dict representing a figure

• warn (bool) – If False, suppress warnings about not using this in production.

• as_dict (bool) – If True, output is a dict with some keys that go.Figure can’t parse. If False, output is a go.Figure with unparseable keys skipped.

Returns

The full figure

Return type
plotly.io.read_json(file, output_type='Figure', skip_invalid=False, engine=None)

Construct a figure from the JSON contents of a local file or readable Python object

Parameters
• file (str or readable) – A string containing the path to a local file or a read-able Python object (e.g. a pathlib.Path object or an open file descriptor)

• output_type (type or str (default 'Figure')) – The output figure type or type name. One of: graph_objects.Figure, ‘Figure’, graph_objects.FigureWidget, ‘FigureWidget’

• skip_invalid (bool (default False)) – False if invalid figure properties should result in an exception. True if invalid figure properties should be silently ignored.

• engine (str (default None)) –

The JSON decoding engine to use. One of:
• if “json”, parse JSON using built in json module

• if “orjson”, parse using the faster orjson module, requires the orjson package

• if “auto” use orjson module if available, otherwise use the json module

If not specified, the default engine is set to the current value of plotly.io.json.config.default_engine.

Returns

Return type
plotly.io.show(fig, renderer=None, validate=True, **kwargs)

Show a figure using either the default renderer(s) or the renderer(s) specified by the renderer argument

Parameters
• fig (dict of Figure) – The Figure object or figure dict to display

• renderer (str or None (default None)) – A string containing the names of one or more registered renderers (separated by ‘+’ characters) or None. If None, then the default renderers specified in plotly.io.renderers.default are used.

• validate (bool (default True)) – True if the figure should be validated before being shown, False otherwise.

• width (int or float) – An integer or float that determines the number of pixels wide the plot is. The default is set in plotly.js.

• height (int or float) – An integer or float that determines the number of pixels wide the plot is. The default is set in plotly.js.

• config (dict) – A dict of parameters to configure the figure. The defaults are set in plotly.js.

Returns

Return type

None

plotly.io.to_html(fig, config=None, auto_play=True, include_plotlyjs=True, include_mathjax=False, post_script=None, full_html=True, animation_opts=None, default_width='100%', default_height='100%', validate=True, div_id=None)

Convert a figure to an HTML string representation.

Parameters
• fig – Figure object or dict representing a figure

• config (dict or None (default None)) – Plotly.js figure config options

• auto_play (bool (default=True)) – Whether to automatically start the animation sequence on page load if the figure contains frames. Has no effect if the figure does not contain frames.

• include_plotlyjs (bool or string (default True)) –

Specifies how the plotly.js library is included/loaded in the output div string.

If True, a script tag containing the plotly.js source code (~3MB) is included in the output. HTML files generated with this option are fully self-contained and can be used offline.

If ‘cdn’, a script tag that references the plotly.js CDN is included in the output. The url used is versioned to match the bundled plotly.js. HTML files generated with this option are about 3MB smaller than those generated with include_plotlyjs=True, but they require an active internet connection in order to load the plotly.js library.

If ‘directory’, a script tag is included that references an external plotly.min.js bundle that is assumed to reside in the same directory as the HTML file.

If ‘require’, Plotly.js is loaded using require.js. This option assumes that require.js is globally available and that it has been globally configured to know how to find Plotly.js as ‘plotly’. This option is not advised when full_html=True as it will result in a non-functional html file.

If a string that ends in ‘.js’, a script tag is included that references the specified path. This approach can be used to point the resulting HTML file to an alternative CDN or local bundle.

If False, no script tag referencing plotly.js is included. This is useful when the resulting div string will be placed inside an HTML document that already loads plotly.js. This option is not advised when full_html=True as it will result in a non-functional html file.

• include_mathjax (bool or string (default False)) –

Specifies how the MathJax.js library is included in the output html div string. MathJax is required in order to display labels with LaTeX typesetting.

If False, no script tag referencing MathJax.js will be included in the output.

If ‘cdn’, a script tag that references a MathJax CDN location will be included in the output. HTML div strings generated with this option will be able to display LaTeX typesetting as long as internet access is available.

If a string that ends in ‘.js’, a script tag is included that references the specified path. This approach can be used to point the resulting HTML div string to an alternative CDN.

• post_script (str or list or None (default None)) – JavaScript snippet(s) to be included in the resulting div just after plot creation. The string(s) may include ‘{plot_id}’ placeholders that will then be replaced by the id of the div element that the plotly.js figure is associated with. One application for this script is to install custom plotly.js event handlers.

• full_html (bool (default True)) – If True, produce a string containing a complete HTML document starting with an <html> tag. If False, produce a string containing a single <div> element.

• animation_opts (dict or None (default None)) – dict of custom animation parameters to be passed to the function Plotly.animate in Plotly.js. See https://github.com/plotly/plotly.js/blob/master/src/plots/animation_attributes.js for available options. Has no effect if the figure does not contain frames, or auto_play is False.

• default_width (number or str (default '100%')) – The default figure width/height to use if the provided figure does not specify its own layout.width/layout.height property. May be specified in pixels as an integer (e.g. 500), or as a css width style string (e.g. ‘500px’, ‘100%’).

• default_height (number or str (default '100%')) – The default figure width/height to use if the provided figure does not specify its own layout.width/layout.height property. May be specified in pixels as an integer (e.g. 500), or as a css width style string (e.g. ‘500px’, ‘100%’).

• validate (bool (default True)) – True if the figure should be validated before being converted to JSON, False otherwise.

• div_id (str (default None)) – If provided, this is the value of the id attribute of the div tag. If None, the id attribute is a UUID.

Returns

Representation of figure as an HTML div string

Return type

str

plotly.io.to_image(fig, format=None, width=None, height=None, scale=None, validate=True, engine='auto')

Convert a figure to a static image bytes string

Parameters
• fig – Figure object or dict representing a figure

• format (str or None) –

The desired image format. One of
• ’png’

• ’jpg’ or ‘jpeg’

• ’webp’

• ’svg’

• ’pdf’

• ’eps’ (Requires the poppler library to be installed and on the PATH)

If not specified, will default to:
• plotly.io.kaleido.scope.default_format if engine is “kaleido”

• plotly.io.orca.config.default_format if engine is “orca”

• width (int or None) –

The width of the exported image in layout pixels. If the scale property is 1.0, this will also be the width of the exported image in physical pixels.

If not specified, will default to:
• plotly.io.kaleido.scope.default_width if engine is “kaleido”

• plotly.io.orca.config.default_width if engine is “orca”

• height (int or None) –

The height of the exported image in layout pixels. If the scale property is 1.0, this will also be the height of the exported image in physical pixels.

If not specified, will default to:
• plotly.io.kaleido.scope.default_height if engine is “kaleido”

• plotly.io.orca.config.default_height if engine is “orca”

• scale (int or float or None) –

The scale factor to use when exporting the figure. A scale factor larger than 1.0 will increase the image resolution with respect to the figure’s layout pixel dimensions. Whereas as scale factor of less than 1.0 will decrease the image resolution.

If not specified, will default to:
• plotly.io.kaleido.scope.default_scale if engine is “kaleido”

• plotly.io.orca.config.default_scale if engine is “orca”

validate: bool

True if the figure should be validated before being converted to an image, False otherwise.

engine: str
Image export engine to use:
• “kaleido”: Use Kaleido for image export

• “orca”: Use Orca for image export

• “auto” (default): Use Kaleido if installed, otherwise use orca

Returns

The image data

Return type

bytes

plotly.io.to_json(fig, validate=True, pretty=False, remove_uids=True, engine=None)

Convert a figure to a JSON string representation

Parameters
• fig – Figure object or dict representing a figure

• validate (bool (default True)) – True if the figure should be validated before being converted to JSON, False otherwise.

• pretty (bool (default False)) – True if JSON representation should be pretty-printed, False if representation should be as compact as possible.

• remove_uids (bool (default True)) – True if trace UIDs should be omitted from the JSON representation

• engine (str (default None)) –

The JSON encoding engine to use. One of:
• ”json” for an engine based on the built-in Python json module

• ”orjson” for a faster engine that requires the orjson package

• ”auto” for the “orjson” engine if available, otherwise “json”

If not specified, the default engine is set to the current value of plotly.io.json.config.default_engine.

Returns

Representation of figure as a JSON string

Return type

str

to_json_plotly

Convert an arbitrary plotly graph_object or Dash component to JSON

plotly.io.to_templated(fig, skip=('title', 'text'))

Return a copy of a figure where all styling properties have been moved into the figure’s template. The template property of the resulting figure may then be used to set the default styling of other figures.

Parameters
• fig – Figure object or dict representing a figure

• skip – A collection of names of properties to skip when moving properties to the template. Defaults to (‘title’, ‘text’) so that the text of figure titles, axis titles, and annotations does not become part of the template

Examples

Imports

>>> import plotly.graph_objects as go
>>> import plotly.io as pio


Construct a figure with large courier text

>>> fig = go.Figure(layout={'title': 'Figure Title',
...                         'font': {'size': 20, 'family': 'Courier'},
...                         'template':"none"})
>>> fig
Figure({
'data': [],
'layout': {'font': {'family': 'Courier', 'size': 20},
'template': '...', 'title': {'text': 'Figure Title'}}
})


Convert to a figure with a template. Note how the ‘font’ properties have been moved into the template property.

>>> templated_fig = pio.to_templated(fig)
>>> templated_fig.layout.template
layout.Template({
'layout': {'font': {'family': 'Courier', 'size': 20}}
})
>>> templated_fig
Figure({
'data': [], 'layout': {'template': '...', 'title': {'text': 'Figure Title'}}
})


Next create a new figure with this template

>>> fig2 = go.Figure(layout={
...     'title': 'Figure 2 Title',
...     'template': templated_fig.layout.template})
>>> fig2.layout.template
layout.Template({
'layout': {'font': {'family': 'Courier', 'size': 20}}
})


The default font in fig2 will now be size 20 Courier.

Next, register as a named template…

>>> pio.templates['large_courier'] = templated_fig.layout.template


and specify this template by name when constructing a figure.

>>> go.Figure(layout={
...     'title': 'Figure 3 Title',
...     'template': 'large_courier'})
Figure(...)


Finally, set this as the default template to be applied to all new figures

>>> pio.templates.default = 'large_courier'
>>> fig = go.Figure(layout={'title': 'Figure 4 Title'})
>>> fig.layout.template
layout.Template({
'layout': {'font': {'family': 'Courier', 'size': 20}}
})

Returns

Return type

go.Figure

plotly.io.write_html(fig, file, config=None, auto_play=True, include_plotlyjs=True, include_mathjax=False, post_script=None, full_html=True, animation_opts=None, validate=True, default_width='100%', default_height='100%', auto_open=False, div_id=None)

Write a figure to an HTML file representation

Parameters
• fig – Figure object or dict representing a figure

• file (str or writeable) – A string representing a local file path or a writeable object (e.g. a pathlib.Path object or an open file descriptor)

• config (dict or None (default None)) – Plotly.js figure config options

• auto_play (bool (default=True)) – Whether to automatically start the animation sequence on page load if the figure contains frames. Has no effect if the figure does not contain frames.

• include_plotlyjs (bool or string (default True)) –

Specifies how the plotly.js library is included/loaded in the output div string.

If True, a script tag containing the plotly.js source code (~3MB) is included in the output. HTML files generated with this option are fully self-contained and can be used offline.

If ‘cdn’, a script tag that references the plotly.js CDN is included in the output. The url used is versioned to match the bundled plotly.js. HTML files generated with this option are about 3MB smaller than those generated with include_plotlyjs=True, but they require an active internet connection in order to load the plotly.js library.

If ‘directory’, a script tag is included that references an external plotly.min.js bundle that is assumed to reside in the same directory as the HTML file. If file is a string to a local file path and full_html is True, then the plotly.min.js bundle is copied into the directory of the resulting HTML file. If a file named plotly.min.js already exists in the output directory then this file is left unmodified and no copy is performed. HTML files generated with this option can be used offline, but they require a copy of the plotly.min.js bundle in the same directory. This option is useful when many figures will be saved as HTML files in the same directory because the plotly.js source code will be included only once per output directory, rather than once per output file.

If ‘require’, Plotly.js is loaded using require.js. This option assumes that require.js is globally available and that it has been globally configured to know how to find Plotly.js as ‘plotly’. This option is not advised when full_html=True as it will result in a non-functional html file.

If a string that ends in ‘.js’, a script tag is included that references the specified path. This approach can be used to point the resulting HTML file to an alternative CDN or local bundle.

If False, no script tag referencing plotly.js is included. This is useful when the resulting div string will be placed inside an HTML document that already loads plotly.js. This option is not advised when full_html=True as it will result in a non-functional html file.

• include_mathjax (bool or string (default False)) –

Specifies how the MathJax.js library is included in the output html div string. MathJax is required in order to display labels with LaTeX typesetting.

If False, no script tag referencing MathJax.js will be included in the output.

If ‘cdn’, a script tag that references a MathJax CDN location will be included in the output. HTML div strings generated with this option will be able to display LaTeX typesetting as long as internet access is available.

If a string that ends in ‘.js’, a script tag is included that references the specified path. This approach can be used to point the resulting HTML div string to an alternative CDN.

• post_script (str or list or None (default None)) – JavaScript snippet(s) to be included in the resulting div just after plot creation. The string(s) may include ‘{plot_id}’ placeholders that will then be replaced by the id of the div element that the plotly.js figure is associated with. One application for this script is to install custom plotly.js event handlers.

• full_html (bool (default True)) – If True, produce a string containing a complete HTML document starting with an <html> tag. If False, produce a string containing a single <div> element.

• animation_opts (dict or None (default None)) – dict of custom animation parameters to be passed to the function Plotly.animate in Plotly.js. See https://github.com/plotly/plotly.js/blob/master/src/plots/animation_attributes.js for available options. Has no effect if the figure does not contain frames, or auto_play is False.

• default_width (number or str (default '100%')) – The default figure width/height to use if the provided figure does not specify its own layout.width/layout.height property. May be specified in pixels as an integer (e.g. 500), or as a css width style string (e.g. ‘500px’, ‘100%’).

• default_height (number or str (default '100%')) – The default figure width/height to use if the provided figure does not specify its own layout.width/layout.height property. May be specified in pixels as an integer (e.g. 500), or as a css width style string (e.g. ‘500px’, ‘100%’).

• validate (bool (default True)) – True if the figure should be validated before being converted to JSON, False otherwise.

• auto_open (bool (default True)) – If True, open the saved file in a web browser after saving. This argument only applies if full_html is True.

• div_id (str (default None)) – If provided, this is the value of the id attribute of the div tag. If None, the id attribute is a UUID.

Returns

Representation of figure as an HTML div string

Return type

str

plotly.io.write_image(fig, file, format=None, scale=None, width=None, height=None, validate=True, engine='auto')

Convert a figure to a static image and write it to a file or writeable object

Parameters
• fig – Figure object or dict representing a figure

• file (str or writeable) – A string representing a local file path or a writeable object (e.g. a pathlib.Path object or an open file descriptor)

• format (str or None) –

The desired image format. One of
• ’png’

• ’jpg’ or ‘jpeg’

• ’webp’

• ’svg’

• ’pdf’

• ’eps’ (Requires the poppler library to be installed and on the PATH)

If not specified and file is a string then this will default to the file extension. If not specified and file is not a string then this will default to:

• plotly.io.kaleido.scope.default_format if engine is “kaleido”

• plotly.io.orca.config.default_format if engine is “orca”

• width (int or None) –

The width of the exported image in layout pixels. If the scale property is 1.0, this will also be the width of the exported image in physical pixels.

If not specified, will default to:
• plotly.io.kaleido.scope.default_width if engine is “kaleido”

• plotly.io.orca.config.default_width if engine is “orca”

• height (int or None) –

The height of the exported image in layout pixels. If the scale property is 1.0, this will also be the height of the exported image in physical pixels.

If not specified, will default to:
• plotly.io.kaleido.scope.default_height if engine is “kaleido”

• plotly.io.orca.config.default_height if engine is “orca”

• scale (int or float or None) –

The scale factor to use when exporting the figure. A scale factor larger than 1.0 will increase the image resolution with respect to the figure’s layout pixel dimensions. Whereas as scale factor of less than 1.0 will decrease the image resolution.

If not specified, will default to:
• plotly.io.kaleido.scope.default_scale if engine is “kaleido”

• plotly.io.orca.config.default_scale if engine is “orca”

• validate (bool) – True if the figure should be validated before being converted to an image, False otherwise.

• engine (str) –

Image export engine to use:
• ”kaleido”: Use Kaleido for image export

• ”orca”: Use Orca for image export

• ”auto” (default): Use Kaleido if installed, otherwise use orca

Returns

Return type

None

plotly.io.write_json(fig, file, validate=True, pretty=False, remove_uids=True, engine=None)

Convert a figure to JSON and write it to a file or writeable object

Parameters
• fig – Figure object or dict representing a figure

• file (str or writeable) – A string representing a local file path or a writeable object (e.g. a pathlib.Path object or an open file descriptor)

• pretty (bool (default False)) – True if JSON representation should be pretty-printed, False if representation should be as compact as possible.

• remove_uids (bool (default True)) – True if trace UIDs should be omitted from the JSON representation

• engine (str (default None)) –

The JSON encoding engine to use. One of:
• ”json” for an engine based on the built-in Python json module

• ”orjson” for a faster engine that requires the orjson package

• ”auto” for the “orjson” engine if available, otherwise “json”

If not specified, the default engine is set to the current value of plotly.io.json.config.default_engine.

Returns

Return type

None